Bioenergy Biomass Untuk Kemakmuran Indonesia
In Indonesia economies, important biomass fuels are residues from agriculture and used in both traditional and modern applications. More than 40% of approximately 225 million populations engage in this sector those depend on fosil fuel and wood to run their daily activities including agricultural. So there is a need for using a sustainable source of fuel in the rural area. When discussing about potential of solid biomass energy, food security and sustainability of agriculture (and forestry in general) must be considered. Agriculture residues are from crops as follow : Palm oil (empty fruit bunches and palm shells), Coconut (shell and fibre), Ruber (small log from replanting), Sugar (bagasse), Rice (husk) and Corn from the corncob While forest waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy is waste of cutting of trees in forest, saw timber and also processing waste. The technical energy potensial of solid biomass in Indonesia in 2010 are from agriculture residues that is around 614.6 mill GJ/year and from forest waste is around 141.483 mill GJ/year or totally is around 756.083 mill GJ per year. Others source have benn calculated in 2000 and the potensial was around 470 mill GJ/year and in 2007 was around 441 mill GJ/year (minus log residues) but the utilization is still very limited, that is around 3.25 %. So far, the actual readily feedstock (for liquid biofuel) from agriculture are mainly palm oil for biodiesel, sugarcane and cassava for bioetanol. The nantional palm oil production recently able to support the target of biodiesel usage. Lack of feedstocks (sugarcane or cassava) for bioetanol cause the national target can not be achieved. Other potensial energy crops still need some effort to be ready for the effective feedstock. For developing the solid biomass energy and bioenergy in general, the sustainability of food and agriculture/forest (and environment in general) much be roled as the first determinant parameter. That’s why solid biomass as source of energy have to be asumed also as an organic material that required by the land and crops as well. So the biomass energy should be utilized in the country where the biomass were taken, that mean the export of solid biomass have to be stopped.
Keyword : potensial energy crops, rural sector, biomass availability, agriculture residues, forest waste, food security, environment
Seminar Nasional Bahan Bakar Nabati, Bogor 17 Desember 2012
In the face of its depleting oil reserves and fluctuating world oil prices, Indonesia has launched an intensive biofuels production program. The development of biofuels or bio-diesel will also create more jobs and reduce poverty. Besides reducing dependence on fossil fuels, the cultivation of biofuels crops was also seen as a way to help boost local economies. In Indonesia economies, important biomass fuels are generally assumed as residues from agriculture and used in both traditional and modern applications. Biomass is material derived from recently living organisms such as plants, animals and their by-products like green manure, waste and crop residues are all sources of biomass. Sometime also classified into two category, i.e. rural and urban resources, can also consist of woody and non-woody biomass that come from trees and also from crop residues or other vegetation. Beside these solid biomass energy source, plant oil or liquid fuel (biodiesel and bioetanol) have also produced based on the yield of energy crops, i.e. bioediesel from CPO, bioetanol made from molasses/sugarcane etc.
The fact shows that agriculture is a strategic sector in Indonesia. More than 40% of approximately 225 million populations engage in this sector those depend on kerosene, gasoline, diesel oil and wood to run theirs daily activities such as cooking and house lighting as well as for water pumping, agricultural land preparation and product processing. So there is a need for using a sustainable source of fuel in the rural area.
Biomass are usually classified into two general category, i.e. rural and urban resources. However the rural side only will be disscused, parcularly energy crops. When discussing about potential of solid biomass energy, food security and sustainability of agriculture (and forestry in general) must be considered. Therefore before discussing more detail about the quantity of feedstock, type of crops or feedstock have to be difined and determined. Considering the environment aspect, forest/ wood waste are mainly only come from the sawmill and plywood waste, and do not include log anymore except from their residues. Based on the bad past experience, once the small log is included, ilegally the larger log may be taken also. Food security is top priority in Indonesia, so that all of the program must refer to this criteria. So the feedstock will be considered are only when the crops can not be as a food source, including when it will indirectly disturb the food security program. For example, some biomass that are usually also utilized for organic fertilizer. For the long term, agronomist or agriculture expert are always remaining about these cases, and do not over exploited it.
Based on those criteria, there are only certain feedstock can also be included as a potensial solid biomass for bioenergy from rural resources. From the forest will be only waste of the sawmill and plywood or wood industry waste. The existing energy crops grow in Indonesia that usually produce plant oil or fuel from their main yield are palm oil, sugar palm, sugar, coconut, “nyamplung” (Calophyllum Inophyllum), candle nut, physic nut, cassava, sago. Actually there are other energy crops also grow in Indonesia but not so large cultivated yet, such as pongamia pinata, avocado, macadamia nut, sea mango (cerbera manghas).
Solid biomass energy as a rural resources can usually be from their waste, therefore potensial solid biomass energy from agriculture waste generally will be only from certain estate crops also i.e. palm oil and ruber, coconut, sugar, while from food crops will be only waste of paddy and corn. Parts of coconut or the secondary product which can be used as a source of alternative energy are the coconut fruit (the endosperm) for its oil and biofuel, the coconut shell,its shells’ fibre and tree can be burnt to produce heat, but mainly are from coconut shell and fibre. Cassava is not included as solid biomass because the tube is used for producing liquid fuel (bioetanol) while most of the stem is used for establishing new plantation, and the leaves are for animal feed. Based on those criteria, waste from the potensial energy crops for solid biomass energy will be only palm oil, ruber, sugar, coconut, rice, corn and also waste from sawmill and plywood/wood agroindustry.
2.1.1. Rice and Other Food Crops. Rice straw, stalk and bran are usually utilized for animal feed, so the realistic potensial biomass residues from rice is only the husk. Rice straw is also utilized for improving soil fertility. In rainfed area, iron toxicity, phosphorus deficiency, water and low organic matter availability are the main constrainst in rainfed rice land management. So management of rainfed land with starw immersion can improve soil properties such as physical, chemical and biological and also efficiency of the use of anorganic fertilizer. From corn will be only corncob that has been utilized as source of energy by people, while stem and leaves are usually utilized for animal feeding. These type of waste are almost similar to the list of biomass has been reported in 2000 (ZREU, 2000) and Prastowo (2007).
2.1.2. Palm Oil and Other Estate Crops. Potensial solid biomass energy come from palm oil are palm shells, empty fruit bunces, while the fibres are for animal feed. From ruber trees are branches and small log might resulted from the replanting activities. ZREU (2000) has reported that biomass energy can be from cane tops and leaves also, but practically these can not be adopted. Eventhough solid biomass energy can be from cane tops and cane leaves potensially, but people recently are utilizing these for feed of cattle. Indonesia now is developing integrated farming (cattle and sugar) in several areas. So from sugar plantation biomass energy will be only from bagasse, that has been utilized by sugar factory since long time ago.
2.1.3. Effective Solid Biomass. Based on those criteria and restriction above, the efective potensial solid biomass energy come from the residues of crops as follow :
Data show that some of harvested area of energy crops are increasing siginificantly, except ruber, sugar and coconut. Most production of main yield of the crops are increasing with sugar as the lowest one (Table 1 and Table 2). In case of feedstock from those six energy crops, production of solid biomass in Indonesia is getting higher. In other hand there are solid biomass that are potensially utilized for bioenergy source. Map of suitable land for these six crops are already available, where suitable land for palm oil is around 44 mill ha, coconut 23.1 mill ha, sugar 12.7 mill ha and jatropha curcas 14.7 mill ha (Mulyani and Las, 2008).
Table 1. Harvested Area (Ha) of Energy Crops in Indonesia 2000 – 2010*
Source : * Ministry of Agriculture (2011a)
** Ministry of Agriculture (2011b)
Table 2. Production of Energy Crops (Ton) in Indonesia 2000 – 2010*
Source : * Ministry of Agriculture (2011a)
** Ministry of Agriculture (2011b)
The last data of planted area and production of energy crops are shown in Table 3 while technical energy potensial from each biomass residues from the rural resources in Indonesia as shown in Table 4. So far there are not much available parameter or data base for calculating effective potency of energy from agriculture and the residues including from forest. Potency of energy per hectare of some energy crops from the Centre Study of Energy Policy of Bandung Institute of Technology are used for converting the solid biomass production to the technical energy potensial (Table 4). The production of energy crop that increased significantly is palm oil with planted area more than 8.4 mill ha, which is the largest palm oil plantation in the world. Empty fruit bunches from the palm oil plantation is about 23 % of total fruit, that usually used for organic fertilizer or compost.
Tabel 3. Production of Energy Crops 2010
|Energy Crops||Planted Area
( Ha )
( Ton )
Source : Ministry of Agriculture(2011a)
Tabel 4. Technical Energy Potensial of Efective Solid Agriculture Biomass
|Efective Residues||Planted Area***) (Ha)||Potency Energy
|Technical Energy Potensial mill GJ/year|
|Palm Oil||Fruit empty
|Ruber||Small log||3,445,121||36.3 **)|
|Technical Energy Potensial of Solid Agr. Biomass||614.6|
Note : *) Centre Study of Energy Policy, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2010
**) Ruber residues 12.39 mill ton/year from 3 % replanted in 2010 with 200 trees/ha population (Rostiwati Silvi, Ministry of Forestry, 2011, personal communication ) and calculated based on ZREU (2000)
***) Ministry of Agriculture (2011a)
****) Assumed that 50% of empty fruit bunches is for organic fertilizer (compost)
Table 5. Technical Energy Potensial of Efective Solid Forest Biomass 2010
|Efective Biomass Residues||Year Period||Residues
1998 – 2004
2005 – 2010
2000 – 2010
|Saw timber||2006 – 2010||4.2||42|
|Wood industry||2006 – 2010||7.86||83.84|
|Technical Energy Potensial of Solid Forest Biomass||141.483|
Tabel 6. Total of Technical Energy Potensial of Solid Biomass in Indonesia 2010
|No||Solid Biomass Residues||Technical Energy Potensial of Solid Biomass
|Total Energy Potensial of Solid Biomass||756.083|
Forest waste that can be used as a source of energy is waste of cutting of trees in forest, branches, the stump sawmill waste in the form of sawmill wood scraps and sawdust sawmill and also processing waste in the form of peeling plywood scraps of wood, including waste wood processing industry in the from pieces of wood. Data saw that waste of cutting trees in the natural forest is getting lower from year to year. In the year of 1998 – 2004 average of wood cutting residues is around 2.3 mill ton/year and then in 2005 – 2010 is around 1.91 mill ton/year or average is around 2.105 mill ton per year during the last of 12 year. Beside these data, residues are produced also from people forest that usually managed by people also, and the average residues are around 1.6 mill ton/year in the last 10 year, or totally is around 3.705 mill ton (2.105 mill ton +1.6 mill ton) per year. ZREU (2000) calculated that with 41 mill ton solid biomass was around 19 miil GJ/year. So the total residues from the forest wood cutting 3.705 mill ton per year similar with around 15.643 mill GJ/year. In 2000 ZREU has reported that the logging residues was about 4.5 mill ton/year or around 19 mill GJ/year. This decreased might be rational enough because of awareness of the environment so that the logging activities is decreasing also. During last 6 year, residues from sawn timber is about 4.2 mill ton/year or around 42 mill GJ/year, while residues from wood industry is about 7.86 mill ton/year or around 83.84 mill GJ/year. So total residues from forest sector is predicted can generate around 141.5 mill GJ per year.
Based on those data shown that total potensial solid biomass for energy sources is 756.083 mill GJ per year in Indonesia (Table 6). While ZREU (2000) calculated that total potensial solid biomass energy was about 470 mill GJ. Eventhough both previous calculation based on little bit different database but results show that these potensial solid biomass energy is increasing during the last ten years however, compare to ZREU calculation. The significant share of this increased is mainly come from palm oil and sugar. Increasing of palm oil solid biomass is caused by either harvested area and its production, while sugar mainly because of increasing of the productivity. From the forest residues, increasing of potensial solid biomass mainly come from residues of wood industry. Regulation that have restricted the exportation of log have developed wood industry in the country so that the residues from this sector is getting higher. In case of these kind of residues, recently development of industry of biomass pellet is getting more interesting particularly by foreign investor. However solid biomass energy should be for supplying domestic demand. Unfortunitely the utilization of total biomass energy in Indionesia is still very limited, that is around 3.25 % of the potency (Hutapea, 2011).
As discussed before that there are crops can produce non solid biomass energy or liquid biofuel (bioetanol and biodiesel) potensially such as palm oil, jatropha curcas, nyamplung and kemiri minyak/sunan or candle nut for biodiesel and sugarcane, sago, sugar palm, cassava and sorgum for bioetanol. But so far, the potensial energy crops for producing liquid biofuel practically or readily are only palm oil for biodiesel and sugarcane or cassava for bioetanol. Based on the data, the national palm oil production recently do able to support the target of biodiesel usage. Otherwise, due to the lack of feedstocks, so the production of sugarcane and cassava are not able to support the national target of bioetanol usage. While the other potensial energy crops need some effort to be ready.
2.2.1. Palm Oil. The palm oil plantation in Indonesia is about 8.908 million hectares and has the production of 22.508 million tons CPO (Ministry of Agric., 2011), but production of biodiesel totally is only around 400 thousand liter. In 2008, from the total palm oil plantation, 53,7% is run by private companies, 34,2% owned by the local farmers, and PTPN (state owned company) is about 12,1%. The high yielding varieties of palm oil are now available in the research center for supporting the biofuel production.
2.2.2. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is also developed as another option in creating biodiesel based on some considerations, which are the limited usage of the plant other than the benefit as a biofuel. Although in other countries there are some Jatropha which not contain toxic, but so far in Indonesia the kind of Jatropha curcas found contains toxic (for humans). The good adaptabilty and the limited usage of Jatropha is a factor on which make this plant as one of the consideration to be planted as a biofuel source. The main challenge in developing this plant as a biofuel source is the unavailability of the best quality seeds. Nowadays, the number of Jatropha curcas plantation area is not more than about 30 thousand hectares that scattered in all over Indonesia. Based on the land mapping, the suitable land is about 14,7 million hectares (Mulyani and Allolerung, 2007; Mulyani and Las 2008), but very suitable one is only around 5.5 mill ha. The Indonesian Centre for Estate Crops Research and Development has selected seed of best Jatropha curcas. The strategic steps has been started in 2006 and improved population of jatropha curcas seeds has been launched named IP-1, and another improved population is IP-2 has been launched again in 2007, with potensial seed yield 4-5 t/ ha (IP-1) and 6-8 t/ha (IP-2). These seeds has been developed that suitable for wet climate (IP-1P and IP-2P), medium (IP-1M and IP-2M) and for dry climare areas (IP-1A and IP-2A) (Puslitbangbun, 2007). In 2008 IP-3 series of jatropha curcas seed have been released also with potensial yield 8-10 ton/ha.
2.2.3. Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) and Kemiri Sunan or Kemiri Minyak (Aleurites trisperma BLANCO) are other potensial energy’s crops in Indonesia. But nyamplung plantation is only 638 ha (Forestry R&D Agency, 2008) and kemiri sunan is scattered in some area in Java. Nyamplung fruit is non toxic one, and their seed cake can be for animal feed. People in Indonesia particularly in Java have been recognizing nyamplung since longtime ago, so actually it will not be difficult to developed. Indonesia has just started in studying this crop. Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development through Ministry of Agriculture has released new clone of nyamplung such as Kemiri Sunan 1and Kemiri Sunan 2.
2.2.4. Coconut. The coconut plantation in indonesia today is around 3,8 million hectares. The price of coconut which not attractive enough has caused improper treatment of coconuts by the farmers. About 20-30% coconut plantation in Indonesia should be replated or rehabilitated, because the coconut trees are already old. Technology of coconut usage as the source of alternative technology actually has been mastered by the farmers. Some high yielding varieties have been released since couple years ago, i.e. Tenga variety, Palu, Genjah Salak etc., but main constraint in utilizing coconut for biofuel is its competition with food.
2.2.5. Tebu/Sugacane (Saccharum officinale). There are some new varieties of new improved sugarcane for rice fields or dry land. The varieties has been tested in any condition of land in Java or outside Java, that includes varieties which has potential to be processed as bioethanol, such as PSCO 90-2411 (Mirsawan et al., 2006). Sugarcane plantation area is around 448,745 hectares, with cane production of 31.140 tons, or sugar production about 2,694,227 tons and in molases more than 1.4 thousand tons. About 40 % of the production of the molases has been used as bioethanol, while 60 % of it is used as MSG etc., so competition with other usage of mollases may become costrainst in producing bioetanol from sugarcane. This constarinst cause the cost of production of bioetanol become too high and now there are no production of bioetanol in Indonesia. The main other constrainst will be land avaibility for dedicating the areas for sugarcane. Indonesia is now still importing the white sugar, so the excisting areas now can not enough be used for producing bioethanol.
2.2.6. Ubikayu/Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is one of the plants which can be one of the source of biofuel specially bioethanol. Nowaday the production of cassava nationally is about 18,99 million tons of fresh casssava spreaded in 26 provinces, with area about 1,23 million hectares and productivity 15,4 t/ha. The production areas are located in 14 provinces concludes 55 kabupaten. The improved varieties are available, i.e. UJ-3 (short term), Adira-4 (medium term), and Malang-6 and UJ-5 (long term) (Suyamto and Wargiyono, 2006). The constrainst will be the competition with othe secondary crops. Based on the Indonesia land and climate condition, there 14 provinces are suitable or can the productuon center of cassava.
2.2.7. Sorghum (sorghum bicolor) is a plant producing seeds which cultivated mostly in hot and dry climate. It has a great adaptive ability which makes it can grow in any kinds of climate, needs relatively smaller input and useful mainly as source of cattle food, staple food and also for the industrial needs. Sorgum plantation is now only around 0.11 mill hectares with productivity around 0.85 t/ha. The development of sorghum in Indonesia is very limited, however the potential of development is still widely open.
2.2.8. Sago palm (Metroxylon Sagu Rottb) fields (mostly located in Papua) in Indonesia nowadays is estimated about 1 – 1.5 million hectares (Flach, 1984 and Jong, 2005). Theoritically, about half of the plants can be processed as to produce ethanol. One sago palm tree from Papua can produce 200 kg of sago flour and can produce ethanol of 30 litres. Sago from Maluku can produce about 400-500 kg sago flour. Sago is harvested about 35 trees per ha per year. The ethanol price in the market is quite interesting, it’s a factor which hopefully will increase the use of sago palm as a source of alternative energy. There are some constrainst, such as the spread of plantation population, especially since it is located in difficult places to be reached. However, sago is stupple food in some areas, so the local goverment should consider it before developing sago for producing biofuels.
2.2.9. Sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata). Another source of ethanol is sugar palm with around 47.763 ha plantation in more than 13 provinces (Ditjenbun, 2002). The constrainst is that the plantation is scatterly in all over the island so that is not easy to harvest the bunches. Other constraint is a competition, because there are some people are consuming the fermented nira/alcohol so they like to sell it as an alcoholic drink and also due to its more interesting price than when they utilize nira for producing bioetanol.
From the rural area solid biomass can be also from large ruminants such as cattle and buffalo, that produce manure. Large ruminants (cattle, buffalo) population is 13.68 mill head in 2004 with fresh dung average 12/kg/head/day or totally prodused 164.16 mill tons of fresh manure/day (Syamsuddin and Iskandar, 2005). While based on the animal census in 2011 the number reached 14,805,053 head. The dispersal area for cattle is 4.7 million head of East Java, Central Java, 1.9 million birds, 984 thousand heads in South Sulawesi, NTT is 778, 2 thousand heads, Lampung 742.8 thousand heads, NTB 685.8 thousand heads and North Sumatra 541, 7 thousand heads. So in 2011fresh manure that can be produced per day is around 177.72 mill ton/day, but Widodo et al. (2006) estimates that the provision and utilization of biogas in Indonesia is only about one percent.
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